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Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment

Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms

After multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms have been diagnosed, tests are done to find out the amount of cancer in the body.

The process used to find out the amount of cancer in the body is called staging. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:

Certain tests may be repeated to see how well the treatment is working.

The stage of multiple myeloma is based on the levels of beta-2-microglobulin and albumin in the blood.

Beta-2-microglobulin and albumin are found in the blood. Beta-2-microglobulin is a protein found on the surface of plasma cells. Albumin makes up the biggest part of the blood plasma. It keeps fluid from leaking out of blood vessels, brings nutrients to tissues, and carries hormones, vitamins, drugs, and other substances, such as calcium, throughout the body. The amount of beta-2-microglobulin is increased and the amount of albumin is decreased in the blood of patients with multiple myeloma.

The following stages are used for multiple myeloma:

Stage I multiple myeloma

In stage I multiple myeloma, the blood levels are as follows:

Stage II multiple myeloma

In stage II multiple myeloma, the blood levels are as follows:

Stage III multiple myeloma

In stage III multiple myeloma, the blood level of beta-2-microglobulin is 5.5 g/mL or higher.

The stages of other plasma cell neoplasms are different from the stages of multiple myeloma.

Isolated plasmacytoma of bone

In isolated plasmacytoma of bone, one plasma cell tumor is found in the bone, less than 5% of the bone marrow is made up of plasma cells, and there are no other signs of cancer.

Extramedullary plasmacytoma

In extramedullary plasmacytoma, one plasma cell tumor is found in the soft tissue but not in the bone or the bone marrow.

Macroglobulinemia

There is no standard staging system for macroglobulinemia.

Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

In monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), less than 10% of the bone marrow is made up of plasma cells, there is M protein in the blood, and there are no signs of cancer.