Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment
Stages of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Key Points for this Section
After chronic myelogenous leukemia has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if the cancer has spread.
Staging is the process used to find out how far the cancer has
spread. There is no standard staging system for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Instead, the disease is
classified by phase: chronic phase, accelerated phase, or blastic phase. It
is important to know the phase in order to plan treatment. The
following tests and procedures may be used to find out the phase:
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
When cancer cells spread outside the blood, a solid tumor may form. This process is called metastasis.
The three ways that cancer cells spread in the body are:
- Through the blood. Cancer cells travel through the blood, invade solid tissues in the body, such as the brain or heart, and form a solid tumor.
- Through the lymph system. Cancer cells invade the lymph system, travel through the lymph vessels, and form a solid tumor in other parts of the body.
- Through solid tissue. Cancer cells that have formed a solid tumor spread to tissues in the surrounding area.
The new (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary cancer. For example, if leukemia cells spread to the brain, the cancer cells in the brain are actually leukemia cells. The disease is metastatic leukemia, not brain cancer.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia has 3 phases.
As the amount of blast cells increases in the blood and bone marrow, there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This may result in infections, anemia, and easy bleeding, as well as bone pain and pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left side. The number of blast cells in the blood and bone marrow and the severity of symptoms determine the phase of the disease.
In chronic phase CML, fewer than 10% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells.
In accelerated phase CML, 10% to 19% of the cells in the blood and bone marrow are blast cells.
In blastic phase CML, 20% or more of the cells in the blood or bone marrow are blast cells. When tiredness, fever, and an enlarged spleen occur during the blastic phase, it is called blast crisis.