Blood cell development. A blood stem cell goes through several steps to become a red blood cell, platelet, or white blood cell.
In CLL, too many blood stem cells develop into abnormal lymphocytes and do not become healthy white blood cells. The abnormal lymphocytes may also be called leukemic cells. The lymphocytes are not able to fight infection very well. Also, as the number of lymphocytes increases in the blood and bone marrow, there is less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This may result in infection, anemia, and easy bleeding.
This summary is about chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
See the following PDQ summaries for more information about leukemia:
Older age can affect the risk
of developing chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. People who think they may be at risk should discuss this with their doctor. Risk factors for CLL include the following:
Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews.
Possible signs of chronic lymphocytic leukemia include swollen lymph nodes and tiredness.
Usually CLL does not cause any symptoms and is found during a routine blood test. Sometimes symptoms occur that may be caused by CLL or by other
conditions. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems
Tests that examine the blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes are used to detect
(find) and diagnose chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
count (CBC): A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and
checked for the following:
Complete blood count (CBC). Blood is collected by inserting a needle into a vein and allowing the blood to flow into a tube. The blood sample is sent to the laboratory and the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are counted. The CBC is used to test for, diagnose, and monitor many different conditions.
The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and
The portion of the blood sample made up of red blood
Cytogenetic analysis: A test in which cells in a sample of blood or bone marrow are viewed under a microscope to look for changes in the structure or number of chromosomes in the lymphocytes.
Immunophenotyping: A test in which the cells in a sample of blood or bone marrow are looked at under a microscope to find out if malignant lymphocytes (cancer) began from the B lymphocytes or the T lymphocytes.
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: The removal of bone marrow, blood, and a small piece of bone by inserting a hollow needle into the hipbone or breastbone. A pathologist views the bone marrow, blood, and bone under a microscope to look for abnormal cells.
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. After a small area of skin is numbed, a Jamshidi needle (a long, hollow needle) is inserted into the patient’s hip bone. Samples of blood, bone, and bone marrow are removed for examination under a microscope.
Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance