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Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment

Stages of Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

After paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity or to other parts of the body.

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:

There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:

When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

There is no standard staging system for cancer of the sphenoid and frontal sinuses.


Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.
Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.

The following stages are used for maxillary sinus cancer:

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the maxillary sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I

In stage I, cancer has formed in the mucous membranes of the maxillary sinus.

Stage II

In stage II, cancer has spread to bone around the maxillary sinus, including the roof of the mouth and the nose, but not to bone at the back of the maxillary sinus or the base of the skull.

Stage III

In stage III, cancer has spread to any of the following:

or

Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has also spread to any of the following:

Stage IV

Stage IV is divided into stage IVA, IVB, and IVC.

Stage IVA

In stage IVA, cancer has spread either:

and cancer has spread to any of the following:

or

Cancer has spread to any of the following:

and cancer may also have spread to one or more lymph nodes 6 centimeters or smaller, anywhere in the neck.

Stage IVB

In stage IVB, cancer has spread to any of the following:

and cancer may be found in one or more lymph nodes of any size, anywhere in the neck.

or

Cancer is found in a lymph node larger than 6 centimeters. Cancer may also be found anywhere in or near the maxillary sinus.

Stage IVC

In stage IVC, cancer may be anywhere in or near the maxillary sinus, may have spread to lymph nodes, and has spread to organs far away from the maxillary sinus, such as the lungs.

The following stages are used for nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus cancer:

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the nasal cavity or ethmoid sinus. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I

In stage I, cancer has formed and is found in only one area (of either the nasal cavity or the ethmoid sinus) and may have spread into bone.

Stage II

In stage II, cancer is found in two areas (of either the nasal cavity or the ethmoid sinus) that are near each other or has spread to an area next to the sinuses. Cancer may also have spread into bone.

Stage III

In stage III, cancer has spread to any of the following:

or

Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer and the lymph node is 3 centimeters or smaller. Cancer has also spread to any of the following:

Stage IV

Stage IV is divided into stage IVA, IVB, and IVC.

Stage IVA

In stage IVA, cancer has spread either:

and cancer has spread to any of the following:

or

Cancer has spread to any of the following:

and cancer may have spread to one or more lymph nodes 6 centimeters or smaller, anywhere in the neck.

Stage IVB

In stage IVB, cancer has spread to any of the following:

and cancer may be found in one or more lymph nodes of any size, anywhere in the neck.

or

Cancer is found in a lymph node larger than 6 centimeters. Cancer may also be found anywhere in or near the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus.

Stage IVC

In stage IVC, cancer may be anywhere in or near the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus, may have spread to lymph nodes, and has spread to organs far away from the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus, such as the lungs.