Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Treatment
General Information About Ovarian Epithelial Cancer
Key Points for this Section
Ovarian epithelial cancer is a disease in which malignant
(cancer) cells form in the tissue covering the ovary.
The ovaries are a pair
of organs in the female reproductive
system. They are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the
uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped
organ where a fetus grows). Each
ovary is about the size and shape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs and
female hormones (chemicals that
control the way certain cells or
organs function). Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium.
Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium.
Ovarian epithelial cancer
is one type of cancer that affects the
ovary. See the following PDQ treatment summaries for information about other types of ovarian tumors:
Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer are at an
increased risk of developing ovarian cancer.
Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Women who have one first-degree relative (mother, daughter, or
sister) with ovarian cancer are at an increased risk of developing ovarian
cancer. This risk is higher in women who have one first-degree relative and one
second-degree relative (grandmother or aunt) with ovarian cancer. This risk is
even higher in women who have two or more first-degree relatives with ovarian
Some ovarian cancers are caused by inherited gene mutations
The genes in cells carry the hereditary information
that is received from a person’s parents. Hereditary ovarian cancer makes up approximately
5% to 10% of all cases of ovarian cancer. Three hereditary patterns have been
identified: ovarian cancer alone, ovarian and breast cancers, and ovarian and
Tests that can detect mutated genes have been developed. These
genetic tests are sometimes done for
members of families with a high risk of cancer. See the following PDQ summaries for
Women with an increased risk of ovarian cancer may consider
surgery to prevent it.
Some women who have an increased risk of ovarian
cancer may choose to have a prophylactic
oophorectomy (the removal of healthy ovaries so that cancer
cannot grow in them). In high-risk women, this procedure has been shown to greatly decrease the risk of developing ovarian cancer. (See the PDQ summary on Ovarian Cancer Prevention for more information.)
Possible signs of ovarian cancer include pain or swelling in the abdomen.
Early ovarian cancer may not cause any symptoms. When symptoms do appear, ovarian cancer is often advanced. Symptoms of ovarian cancer may include the following:
These symptoms may be caused by other conditions and not by ovarian cancer. If the symptoms get worse or do not go away on their own, a doctor should be consulted so that any problem can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. When found in its early stages, ovarian epithelial cancer can often be cured.
Women with any stage of ovarian cancer should think about taking part in a clinical trial. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.
Tests that examine the ovaries, pelvic area, blood, and ovarian
tissue are used to detect (find) and diagnose ovarian cancer.
The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Pelvic exam: An exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and the other hand is placed over the lower abdomen to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. A speculum is also inserted into the vagina and the doctor or nurse looks at the vagina and cervix for signs of disease. A Pap test or Pap smear of the cervix is usually done. The doctor or nurse also inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for lumps or abnormal areas.Pelvic exam. A doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand. This is done to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. The vagina, cervix, fallopian tubes, and rectum are also checked.
- Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.
An abdominal ultrasound or a transvaginal ultrasound may be done.Abdominal ultrasound. An ultrasound transducer connected to a computer is passed over the surface of the abdomen. The ultrasound transducer bounces sound waves off internal organs and tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture).Transvaginal ultrasound. An ultrasound probe connected to a computer is inserted into the vagina and is gently moved to show different organs. The probe bounces sound waves off internal organs and tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture).
- CA 125 assay: A test that measures the level of CA 125 in the blood. CA 125 is a substance released by cells into the bloodstream. An increased CA 125 level is sometimes a sign of cancer or other condition.
- Barium enema: A series of x-rays of the lower gastrointestinal tract. A liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound) is put into the rectum. The barium coats the lower gastrointestinal tract and x-rays are taken. This procedure is also called a lower GI series.
pyelogram (IVP): A series of x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to find out if cancer has spread to these organs. A contrast dye is injected into a vein. As the contrast dye moves through the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, x-rays are taken to see if there are any blockages.
- CT scan (CAT
scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. The tissue is removed in a procedure
called a laparotomy (a surgical
incision made in the wall of the
Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis
(chance of recovery).
The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:
- The stage
of the cancer.
- The type and size of the tumor.
- Whether all of the tumor can be removed by surgery.
patient’s age and general health.
- Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).