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Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment

General Information About Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the kidney.

Wilms tumor

Wilms tumor and other kidney tumors are diseases in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the kidney. In Wilms tumor, one or more tumors may be found in one or both kidneys. There are two kidneys, one on each side of the backbone, above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood, taking out waste products and making urine. The urine passes from each kidney through a long tube called a ureter into the bladder. The bladder holds the urine until it is passed from the body. Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.
Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.

Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of each kidney. The urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the bladder. The urine is stored in the bladder until it leaves the body through the urethra.

Wilms tumor may spread to the lungs, liver, or nearby lymph nodes.

Nephroblastomatosis is a condition in which abnormal tissue grows on the outer part of one or both kidneys. Children with this condition are at risk for developing a type of Wilms tumor that grows quickly. Frequent follow-up testing is important for at least 7 years after the child is treated.

Other kidney tumors

Other childhood kidney tumors, which are diagnosed and treated in different ways, include:

Having certain genetic syndromes or birth defects can increase the risk of developing Wilms tumor.

Anything that increases the risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Parents who think their child may be at risk should discuss this with the child's doctor.

Wilms tumor may be part of a genetic syndrome that affects growth or development. A genetic syndrome is a set of symptoms or conditions that occur together and is usually caused by abnormal genes. Certain birth defects can also increase a child's risk for developing Wilms tumor. The following genetic syndromes and birth defects have been linked to Wilms tumor:

Children with these genetic syndromes and birth defects should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until at least age 8. An ultrasound test of the abdomen may be used for screening. Children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome or hemihypertrophy are also screened for liver and adrenal tumors that are linked to these genetic syndromes. A test to check the alpha-fetoprotein level in the blood and an ultrasound of the abdomen are done until age 4 years. An ultrasound of the kidneys is done after age 4 years.

Some children develop Wilms tumor in both kidneys. These often appear when Wilms tumor is first diagnosed, but a Wilms tumor may also occur in the second kidney after the child is successfully treated for Wilms tumor in one kidney. A second tumor is much more likely to develop in the other kidney when a child's first Wilms tumor is diagnosed before age 12 months or when embryonic cells remain in the kidney.

Children at risk for developing a second Wilms tumor in the other kidney should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months for two to six years. An ultrasound test of the abdomen may be used for screening.

Having certain conditions may be associated with renal cell carcinoma.

Renal cell carcinoma may be related to the following conditions:

Possible signs of Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors include a lump in the abdomen and blood in the urine.

These and other symptoms may be caused by kidney tumors. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur in the child:

Tests that examine the kidney and the blood are used to detect (find) Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors.

The following tests and procedures may be used:

Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney tumors are usually diagnosed and removed in surgery.

Once a kidney tumor is found, surgery is done to find out whether or not the tumor is cancer. If the tumor is only in the kidney, the surgeon will remove the whole kidney (nephrectomy). If there are tumors in both kidneys or if the tumor has spread outside the kidney, a piece of the tumor will be removed. In any case, a sample of tissue from the tumor is sent to a pathologist, who looks at it under a microscope to check for signs of cancer.

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following: